The Standing Invitation

Posts Tagged ‘atoms

The Cost of Perfection

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Take two particles.*

Particles are fussy things. They don’t like being too close to each other because atomic nuclei repel each other very strongly; at the same time, the shifting clouds of electrons surrounding the nuclei can be mildly attractive to one another, so they don’t like being too far apart either. This balance of attractive and repulsive forces is familiar from all social gatherings: when you’re talking to someone at a party you want to be close enough to hear them, but if they’re standing right in your face it’s uncomfortable.

What this means for particles is that there’s a sweet spot, an optimum separation between the two particles that makes them both happy. It’s the lowest-energy arrangement of particles, in that once they’re at this distance, it would require an input of energy to push them closer together or pull them further apart.

So this idea of the optimum distance between two particles is straightforward. And the same thing applies when you have billions of particles at once. They will move around at random until they find the lowest-energy arrangement, where the average distance between particles is as close as possible to the ideal separation.

When billions of particles try to reach their lowest-energy arrangement, they will try to form a lattice.

Lattices are three-dimensional patterns of points in space. They are infinitely large, infinitely repeating, purely mathematical constructs that can only be approached, never exactly attained. A lattice is a map of where particles should sit in space in order to be at the right distance from each other.

When particles arrange themselves on a lattice, we call this a crystal. Crystals, like diamond, are simply regular arrangements of particles – and they really are very regular, repeat themselves almost perfectly for millions and millions of layers.

But remember, lattices are mathematical ideals, perfect and Platonic, while crystals are real-world lumps of matter. The particles in a crystal may try to reach the perfect state of a lattice, but they will never reach it. There will always be defects – points at which an atom is not sitting where the lattice says it should be. These are the microscopic imperfections that mean the ideal of a lattice will never be attained. Even though all particles in a crystal would benefit from being in a perfect lattice (achieving the optimum separation from other particles), the defects are nevertheless unavoidable.

There are two kinds of defects: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic defects are easy to understand. They are simply impurities. A diamond crystal is supposedly a regular arrangement of carbon atoms, but since no source of carbon is perfectly pure, no diamond will be perfectly pure. The most common impurity in diamond is a nitrogen taking the place of a carbon. Diamonds, supposedly pure carbon, are typically 1% nitrogen. As well as being impurities in themselves, the presence of a nitrogen atom causes local distortions in the crystal surrounding it, as the adjacent carbons move slightly from their ideal lattice positions in order to compensate for it.

But even if some perfectly pure source of carbon could be found and a diamond crystal grown from it, would that crystal approach a perfect lattice? Not quite, because of the second kind of defect – intrinsic defects. An intrinsic defect occurs when a particle isn’t where it should be.

These intrinsic defects are interesting because they are unavoidable. They are the inevitable consequence of the great trade-off between enthalpy and entropy. Because although there is an energetic benefit to having particles sitting an ideal distance from each other, there is also an energetic cost to having them perfectly ordered. This again makes sense to anybody who has ever tried to organise anything. Of course you want things organised; things are more efficient when they are organised, and so the more organised, the better – but organising things takes time, effort, and energy. Ultimately a compromise has to be reached: you accept the amount of organisation you can achieve for the amount of energy you’re willing to expend on putting things in order.

Although particles like to be separated by an ideal distance, they also like moving around, particularly at high temperatures. For this reason, truly perfect crystals are impossible to grow. Imperfections will always sneak in. In fact, imperfections are necessary. Crystals exist because it is energetically favourable for particles to be organised; but because of the inevitable cost of organising anything, it is also energetically favourable for there to be defects. And the interesting thing is that because the imperfections are the result of particle movement, and movement depends on temperature, it is possible to predict how many imperfections there will be in a crystal at a given temperature. You can’t say where they will be, but you can say how many there will be per cubic centimetre. The defects obey exact laws that can be understood and exploited. They are perfect imperfections.

 

* In this post, by particles I mean atoms, ions, molecules or some colloids; things smaller than atoms behave rather differently.

Written by The S I

April 9, 2012 at 10:18 am

Things That Don’t Look Like Anything

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When I talk about things like molecules, atoms and particles with nonscientists, a question I am often asked is what these things look like. And they never seem satisfied with my response: that, really, they don’t look like anything at all. It’s not that they’re invisible as such; it’s just that sentences involving what they look like don’t make any sense. You can’t describe their appearance because they don’t have an appearance to describe.

The thought makes people uncomfortable.

The idea of something not looking like anything is not a new one. Sounds do not look like anything. We know that sounds exist, but that physical appearance is not something we can ascribe to them. When we talk about sounds, we describe them in nonvisual terms.

Sounds, or ideas or desires or smells, have a certain abstract quality that seems to excuse this. But particles are stuff. They are physical objects whose masses are known to remarkable degrees of accuracy, and since everything we can see is made up of aggregates of them, it seems impossible that they cannot be described visually.

Let’s consider what happens when you see something, step by step.

An object is illuminated by a bombardment of photons. These photons interact with the surface of the object. Some are absorbed by the object – it is this absorption that gives the object its colour. The photons that are not absorbed are scattered around in all directions, and many of them enter through the pupil of your eye. These photons reach the retina, where they cause chemical changes in molecules like 11-cis-retinal; electrical reports of these changes are transmitted to the brain, where they are interpreted as ‘seeing’ those photons.

So to ‘see’ something means that photons bouncing off the thing cause chemical changes in your eye. This is fine for large objects like apples and oranges, but what if the object is smaller? Most people can’t see objects smaller than 0.1 mm, because there aren’t enough photons reflecting off them to react with our eyes. We get around this problem by using stronger illumination and magnifying lenses, allowing us to see things like blood cells.

But what about objects that are even smaller?

Well, here we start to have a problem. For objects smaller than 0.002 mm, photons of visible light start to be too big to see things clearly. In order to resolve details at this size level, smaller, higher-energy particles than photons need to be used. This is how electron microscopy works: instead of using reflected photons, you use reflected electrons, which are much smaller and better able to probe the surface of what you’re examining.

Is this really ‘seeing’ the object? The microscopic object under examination is not being studied with light, remember. This is why electron microscope images are monochrome. Light isn’t involved in the process at any point until a computer screen shows you, with light, the pattern of reflected electrons. Still, we are presented with pictures of the object’s surface, so it’s certainly like seeing, and the object certainly has an appearance that can be discovered, even if only indirectly.

What if the object is smaller?

Eventually an object can be so small that not even electrons can give you good enough resolution, and even more indirect means of gathering information must be used. One of them, atomic force microscopy, is more analogous to touch than sight: it drags a tiny needle across a surface to register bumps in the surface where the individual atoms are. But apart from the atoms’ location in space, there’s no information here about their appearance. Atoms do not interact with light in a way that gives meaning to the word ‘looks like’. They do absorb light and so might be said to have colour in a technical sense, but no picture of an atom could ever be drawn based on their interaction with light. And smaller particles than atoms don’t interact with light at all. You can’t see them, ever, because there is nothing there to see.

But still, some picture of a very tiny object might be drawn. Questions about its shape, for example, are not meaningless – but on a small enough scale, questions of shape become questions about properties rather than appearance. The question ‘is x round?’ becomes ‘are all the points on x’s surface the same distance from one central point?’. This is a question that can be answered, but only because it is a mathematical question about the properties of a certain type of object. And it turns out that the equations describing these objects reveal the them to be strange and wonderful things – things that behave in ways that make absolutely no sense to people used to objects the size of apples and oranges. They cannot be seen, but they can be described, and this description is better than seeing them. A mathematical description of a particle is more precise and less fallible than the clumsy tool of vision that evolution gave us to survive in a world full of large-scale objects. And we can reach this level of acquaintance with these particles that no one has ever seen because even though we can’t see them, we can imagine them.

Written by The S I

March 26, 2012 at 3:00 am